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Citizenship

The term 'citizenship' has attracted various definitions, but many authors agree that the concept concerns the relationship between the individual and the state (Vogel and Moran, 1991; Oliver and Heater, 1994; Steenbergen, 1994; Lister, 1997). Conceptions of citizenship fall into three broad categories:

  • Formal citizenship - relating to nationality and formal membership of a state;
  • Substantive citizenship - concerning the extent to which those who enjoy formal citizen status may, or may not, enjoy the rights attached to that status;
  • Citizenship as a sense of belonging - Steenbergen (1994) points out that citizenship represents a participation in public life which is broader than political life, emphasising the relationship of the citizen with society as a whole.

Sources:

Lister, R. (1997) Citizenship: feminist perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Oliver, D. and Heater, D. (1994) The foundations of citizenship. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf

Steenbergen, van B. (Ed.) (1994) The condition of citizenship. London: Sage

Vogel, U. and Moran, M. (Eds.) (1991) The frontiers of citizenship. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Related terms:

Human Rights    Immigration    Immigrant    Knowledge    
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