Model Assessment Compassion Communication MMHT Patient Safety MOOC Tools Glossary Community

Browse by letter

A   C   D   E   G   H   I   K   M   N   P   R   S   T   U   V  

Browse by category

Term index


The term 'citizenship' has attracted various definitions, but many authors agree that the concept concerns the relationship between the individual and the state (Vogel and Moran, 1991; Oliver and Heater, 1994; Steenbergen, 1994; Lister, 1997). Conceptions of citizenship fall into three broad categories:

  • Formal citizenship - relating to nationality and formal membership of a state;
  • Substantive citizenship - concerning the extent to which those who enjoy formal citizen status may, or may not, enjoy the rights attached to that status;
  • Citizenship as a sense of belonging - Steenbergen (1994) points out that citizenship represents a participation in public life which is broader than political life, emphasising the relationship of the citizen with society as a whole.


Lister, R. (1997) Citizenship: feminist perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Oliver, D. and Heater, D. (1994) The foundations of citizenship. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf

Steenbergen, van B. (Ed.) (1994) The condition of citizenship. London: Sage

Vogel, U. and Moran, M. (Eds.) (1991) The frontiers of citizenship. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Related terms:

Human Rights    Immigration    Immigrant    Knowledge    
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
Visitors of this website are welcome to use any of the materials for educational purposes as long as they clearly credit their source.